To evaluate the influence of variations in the working angle of the piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler (PUS) on root surfaces.

Material and methods

Fifty-five uniradicular bovine teeth were used, of which 25 teeth were used for the analysis of the roughness and root wear, while the remaining 30 teeth were used for the analysis of morphology (MRS) and the attachment of blood components (ABC). The teeth were randomly divided into five groups according to the type of treatment (G1-G5: piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler; G6: manual curette) and to the PUS working angle applied (G1: 0°; G2: 30°; G3: 45°; G4: 60°; G5: 90°). For statistical analysis, the data describing the MRS and ABC were analysed by the Kruskal–Wallis and Dunn’s tests, and the data describing the roughness and tooth wear were analysed by anova and Tukey’s tests at the significance level of 5%.


Manual curette (MC) promoted a smoother root surface than the application of the PUS. The PUS used at the angles of 30° and 45° resulted in a high level of ABC that was comparable to that obtained by MC. Additionally, the group in which the PUS was applied at an angle of 45° exhibited less tooth wear than the other groups.


Changes in the working angle of the PUS influenced the characteristics of root surfaces after instrumentation.

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